According to this
the RTO west area is a peak load of about 56,000MW and an install
generation capability of 72,000MW (46,000MW Hydroelectric and 26,000MW
thermal (Nuclear, Gas, and Coal).
According to this table,
the average power generating capacity of the BPA is 11,448 MW.
According to this page, the Little Goose dam produces 930 MW
table 1 on page 7 has more information on the generating capacities of
several dams in the Columbia basin. The peak power production
production of the BPA is 18,000 MW, but the average is 11,400 MW, so
the average power output is 63% of peak, so the average power output of
Little Goose is 63.3% of 930 MW or 589 MW. A year is 365.25
days*24 hours * 3600 seconds/hour = 31,550,000 seconds, so Little Goose
produces 589 MW * 31,550,000 seconds/year =
18,584,881,920,000,000J/year = 18*1015J/year =
18PJ/year = 17TBtus/year (from the units(1) program) = 17*1012Btus/year.
17TBtu/year / 55,000 Btu/Kg = 309*106Kg/year of natural gas.
The reaction for burning Natural Gas (CH4) is CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H20 . The molecular weight of natural gas is 16. The molecular weight of oxygern is 32. The molecular weight of the carbon dioxide is 44. The ratio of weights ofCO 2 out over CH4 in is 44/16 or 2.75. So 309*106Kg/year of natural gas will produce 850*106Kg/year of Carbon Dioxide gas.
I found a
PDF file which states that a typical value of heat content for
Natural Gas is 1000 Btu per standard cubic foot (Btu/scf). What
is standard delivery pressure? I finally found my answer at a
site at Umichigan: (From
R.A. Hinrichs, 1996, "Energy: Its Use and The Environment," 2nd Edition, Saunders College Publishing).
Approximate calorific values:
= 5.8 x 106 Btu/bbl
= 1.4 x 105 Btu/U.S. gallon
= 19,000 Btu/lbm (using a density of 7.4 lbm/gallon)
= 42,000 Btu/kg
= 6,000 to 15,000 Btu/lbm, depending on the rank of coal
= 13,200-33,000 Btu/kg
- Natural gas:
= 1000 Btu/ft3
= 25,000 Btu/lbm (using a density of 0.04 lbm/ft3)
= 55,000 Btu/kg
= 3.3 x 1010 Btu/lbm
= 7.3 x 1010 Btu/kg
Fuel requirements for a 1000 MWe power plant (2.4 x 1011 Btu/day input):
- Coal: 9000 tons/day or 1 unit train load (100 90-ton cars)/day
- Oil: 40,000 bbl/day or 1 tanker per week
- Natural gas: 2.4 x 108 SCF/day
- Uranium (as 235U): 3 kg/day
A MW is a million watts or a million joules/second. I went to
personal greenhouse gas calculator page and while that might be
interesting for some high school student, it did not tell me what I
want to know which is the heat content of a kilogram of natural
gas. I found a definition, however, which is useful:
The standard measure of heat energy. It takes one Btu to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit at sea level. For example, it takes about 2,000 Btu to make a pot of coffee. One Btu is equivalent to 252 calories, 778 foot-pounds, 1055 joules, or 0.293 watt-hours. Note: In the abbreviation, only the B is capitalized.
I found what I wanted in England (figures), a table
of specific energies for various substances. The
specific heat of Natural Gas is 37 MJ/m³ . But how
much does a cubic meter of Natural Gas weigh? It depends, of
course, on the temperature and the presure, so what is the standard
temperature and presure?
I came to a
page on CRiSP which is a model of how fish move through dams.
I found a copy of the Draft
Environmental Impact Statement, Elwha River Ecosystem Restoration
Implementation, Olympic National Park, WA.