What would be the CO2 emissions if we converted from hydropower to natural gas power?

According to this report, the RTO west area is a peak load of about 56,000MW and an install generation capability of 72,000MW (46,000MW Hydroelectric and 26,000MW thermal (Nuclear, Gas, and Coal).

According to this table, the average power generating capacity of the BPA is 11,448 MW.  According to this page, the Little Goose dam produces 930 MW peak.  http://www.rtowest.com/Doc/BoiseQuestions-16Aug2002.pdf table 1 on page 7 has more information on the generating capacities of several dams in the Columbia basin.  The peak power production production of the BPA is 18,000 MW, but the average is 11,400 MW, so the average power output is 63% of peak, so the average power output of Little Goose is 63.3% of 930 MW or 589 MW.  A year is 365.25 days*24 hours * 3600 seconds/hour = 31,550,000 seconds, so Little Goose produces 589 MW * 31,550,000 seconds/year = 18,584,881,920,000,000J/year = 18*1015J/year = 18PJ/year = 17TBtus/year (from the units(1) program) = 17*1012Btus/year.  17TBtu/year / 55,000 Btu/Kg = 309*106Kg/year of natural gas.

The reaction for burning Natural Gas (CH4) is CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H20 .  The molecular weight of natural gas is 16.  The molecular weight of oxygern is 32.  The molecular weight of the carbon dioxide is 44.  The ratio of weights ofCO 2 out over CH4 in is 44/16 or 2.75.  So 309*106Kg/year of natural gas will produce 850*106Kg/year of Carbon Dioxide gas.

I found a PDF file which states that a typical value of heat content for Natural Gas is 1000 Btu per standard cubic foot (Btu/scf).  What is standard delivery pressure?  I finally found my answer at a web site at Umichigan: (From
R.A. Hinrichs, 1996, "Energy: Its Use and The Environment," 2nd Edition, Saunders College Publishing).

Approximate calorific values:

Fuel requirements for a 1000 MWe power plant (2.4 x 1011 Btu/day input):

A MW is a million watts or a million joules/second.  I went to the EPA's personal greenhouse gas calculator page and while that might be interesting for some high school student, it did not tell me what I want to know which is the heat content of a kilogram of natural gas.  I found a definition, however, which is useful:

The standard measure of heat energy. It takes one Btu to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit at sea level. For example, it takes about 2,000 Btu to make a pot of coffee. One Btu is equivalent to 252 calories, 778 foot-pounds, 1055 joules, or 0.293 watt-hours. Note: In the abbreviation, only the B is capitalized.


I found what I wanted in England (figures), a table of specific energies for various substances.   The specific heat of Natural Gas is 37 MJ/m³  .  But how much does a cubic meter of Natural Gas weigh?  It depends, of course, on the temperature and the presure, so what is the standard temperature and presure?

Model of fish passage and survival

I came to a page on CRiSP which is a model of how fish move through dams.

Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Elwha River Ecosystem Restoration Implementation, Olympic National Park

I found a copy of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Elwha River Ecosystem Restoration Implementation, Olympic National Park, WA